When asked by men were asked whether they had the right to four types of behaviour: Reprimand, refuse money, use force or have sex. 72% answered no, while 6% of respondents said they did all the above.
The National Family Health Survey 5 (NFHS-5), which found that only 32% of married women work and 44% of women are not allowed to even go to the markets alone, does not paint a picture of women empowerment.
However, the results show that 82% of Indian women can choose to have sex with their husbands.
“Four in five women (82%) can say no to their husbands if they don’t want to have sexual intercourse. According to the NFHS-5 report released by Mansukh Mandaviya, Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya last week, women are more likely to be able to say no to their husbands in Goa (92%) and less likely in Jammu & Kashmir (63% and 65%, respectively).
This new metric was introduced in the most recent survey. It was divided into two phases: Phase-I, covering 17 states and 5 United States (UTs), and Phase-II, covering 11 states and 3 Uts.
Marital rape falls outside the definition of ‘rape’ in the Indian Penal Code (IPC). This means that a man who tries to force his wife over 18 years old cannot be charged. The findings indicate that both spouses are gradually changing their attitudes towards each other in marriage.
Men were also asked additional questions during the survey to determine their gender attitudes. These questions were about a woman refusing to have sex when her husband wants it. When asked by men were asked if they believed they had the right to four types of behaviour: Reprimand the woman, refuse to give money or financial support to her, use force to have sex, even if she does not want it, and then go to have sex again with another woman.
“Only 6 per cent of men aged 15-49 believe that men can display all four of these behaviours if a woman refuses to have sex with him. 72% disagree with any of these four behaviours. The survey shows that 19% of men agree that a husband can reprimand and get mad at a wife if she refuses to have sex with him.
“Almost all states have a high percentage of men who disagree with any of the four behaviours. The percentage is much higher than 70 per cent in Punjab (21%), Chandigarh (28%), Karnataka (45%), and Ladakh (46%). It adds that the percentage of men who disagree with any of these four behaviours has fallen by five percentage points since NFHS-4, when it was 77 per cent.
Only 32% Of Married Women Are Employed
The survey found that married women have a 32% rate of employment, a slight increase from the 31% recorded in the NFHS-4 survey. This is in line with 2015-16’s situation.
15% of married women working aren’t paid, and 14% don’t have any say in how their money is spent.
It states that only 32% of Indian married women between 15 and 49 are currently employed. This compares to 98 percent of married men between 15-49 and 49.
“83 percent of employed women earn cash, with 8 per cent earning in cash and the remaining 8% in in-kind earnings. 15 percent of women who are employed do not get paid for their work. It shows that 95% of men who are employed earn cash and 4% do not get any compensation for their work.”
According to the survey, 85 percent of married women who earn money make decisions on their income alone or with their husbands. These decisions are most often made by women with their husbands; only 18% of those who make these decisions primarily do so alone. According to data, 14% of women believe that their husbands are the sole decision-makers regarding how women’s earnings will be used.
This pattern is slightly different for male incomes.
According to the NFHS-5 survey, although men and women respond to the question differently, 6 percent of women say it is their wife who makes the decision. 71% of women, 66% of men, and 71% of men agree that it is jointly made. 21% of women, 28% of men, and 21% of men believe it is the husband who determines how much to spend.
╬Women Can’t Travel By Themselves
According to the survey, 56% of women can go alone to the market, 52% to a hospital, and 50% to other places in the community. Only 42 per cent of Indian women are allowed to visit all three locations alone, and only 5% are permitted to travel to any one of them.
Only 41% of women in NFHS-4 said that they could go to the market, to the health facility and to other places outside their village or community.
“The percentage of women reporting freedom of movement varies by state. According to the NFHS-5 report, 82% of Himachal Pradesh’s women can travel alone to all three locations. This compares with just 2% in Lakshadweep and 15% in Kerala.