Psychological Disorder, the term is sometimes used to refer to what is more frequently known as mental disorders or psychiatric disorders. Although mental illness is very common, it isn’t common for most people to admit that their is a problem.
Mental disorders are patterns of behavioural or psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life. For various reasons, individuals who have psychological disorders or simply battle with their mental health, often they hesitate to come forward. They may not feel comfortable seeking out a diagnosis because no one really wants to admit that they may not be “normal”.
Below is a list of mental disorders that also lead to dual diagnosis:
Neurodevelopmental disorders are those that are typically diagnosed during infancy, childhood, or adolescence. These psychological disorders include:
Intellectual Disability – sometimes called Intellectual Developmental Disorders, this diagnosis was formerly referred to as mental retardation.
This type of developmental disorder originates prior to the age of 18 and is characterized by limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviours.
Global Developmental Delay – This diagnosis is for developmental disabilities/disorders in children who are under the age of five. Such delays relate to cognition, social functioning, speech, language, and motor skills.
Communication Disorders – These disorders are those that impact the ability to use, understand, or detect language and speech. The DSM-5 identifies four different subtypes of communication disorders: language disorder, speech sound disorder, childhood onset fluency disorder (stuttering), and social (pragmatic) communication disorder.
Autism Spectrum Disorder – This disorder is characterized by persistent deficits in social interaction and communication in multiple life areas as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviours.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – is characterized by a persistent pattern of hyperactivity-impulsivity and/or inattention that interferes with functioning and presents itself in two or more settings such as at home, work, school, and social situations.
2. Bipolar and Related Disorders
Characterized by shifts in mood as well as changes in activity and energy levels. The disorder often involves experiencing shifts between elevated moods and periods of depression.
Mania – This mood is characterized by a distinct period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood accompanied by increased activity and energy. Periods of mania are sometimes marked by feelings of distraction, irritability, and excessive confidence.
Depressive Episodes – These episodes are characterized by feelings of a depressed or sad mood along with a lack of interest in activities. It may also involve feelings of guilt, fatigue, and irritability. During a depressive period, people with bipolar disorder may lose interest in activities that they previously enjoyed, experience sleeping difficulties, and even have thoughts of suicide.
3. Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders are those that are characterized by excessive and persistent fear, worry, anxiety and related behavioural disturbances.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) – This disorderis marked by excessive worry about everyday events. While some stress and worry are a normal and even common part of life, GAD involves worry that is so excessive that it interferes with a person’s well-being and functioning.
Agoraphobia – This conditionis characterized by a pronounced fear a wide range of public places. People who experience this disorder often fear that they will suffer a panic attack in a setting where escape might be difficult. In some cases, this avoidance behaviour can reach a point where the individual is unable to even leave their own home.
Social Anxiety Disorder – is a fairly common psychological disorder that involves an irrational fear of being watched or judged.
Specific Phobias – These phobias involve an extreme fear of a specific object or situation in the environment. Some examples of common specific phobias include the fear of spiders, fear of heights, or fear of snakes. The four main types of specific phobias involve natural events, medical, animals, and situational. When confronted by a phobic object or situation, people may experience nausea, trembling, rapid heart rate, and even a fear of dying.
Panic Disorder – This psychiatric disorder is characterized by panic attacks that often seem to strike out of the blue and for no reason at all. Because of this, people with panic disorder often experience anxiety and preoccupation over the possibility of having another panic attack.
Separation Anxiety Disorder – This condition is a type of anxiety disorder involving an excessive amount of fear or anxiety related to being separated from attachment figures. People are often familiar with the idea of separation anxiety as it relates to young children’s fear of being apart from their parents, but older children and adults can experience it as well.
4. Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative disorders are psychological disorders that involve a dissociation or interruption in aspects of consciousness, including identity and memory.
Dissociative Amnesia – This disorder involves a temporary loss of memory as a result of dissociation. In many cases, this memory loss, which may last for just a brief period or for many years, is a result of some type of psychological trauma. issociative amnesia is much more than simple forgetfulness.
Dissociative Identity Disorder – Formerly known as multiple personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder involves the presence of two or more different identities or personalities. Each of these personalities has its own way of perceiving and interacting with the environment. People with this disorder experience changes in behavior, memory, perception, emotional response, and consciousness.
Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder – is characterized by experiencing a sense of being outside of one’s own body (depersonalization) and being disconnected from reality (derealization). People who have this disorder often feel a sense of unreality and an involuntary disconnect from their own memories, feelings, and consciousness.
5. Eating Disorders
These disorders are characterized by obsessive concerns with weight and disruptive eating patterns that negatively impact physical and mental health.
Anorexia Nervosa – is characterized by restricted food consumption that leads to weight loss and a very low body weight. Those who experience this disorder also have a preoccupation and fear of gaining weight as well as a distorted view of their own appearance and behaviour.
Bulimia Nervosa – involves binging and then taking extreme steps to compensate for these binges. These compensatory behaviours might include self-induced vomiting, the abuse of laxatives or diuretics, and excessive exercise.
Rumination Disorder – is marked by regurgitating previously chewed or swallowed food in order to either spit it out or re-swallow it. Most of those affected by this disorder are children or adults who also have a developmental delay or intellectual disability.
Pica – Pica involves craving and consuming non-food substances such as dirt, paint, or soap. Mostly children & those with developmental disabilities.
Binge-Eating Disorder – involves episodes of binge eating where the individual consumes an unusually large amount of over the course of a couple hours. Not only do people overeat, however, they also feel as if they have no control over their eating. Binge eating episodes are sometimes triggered by certain emotions such as feeling happy or anxious etc.